عنوان مقاله [English]
Explanation of reality of ‘body’ is something that has occupied the minds of the divine philosophers since long ago, causing disagreements and plurality of views among them. In the early division, a group regarded the external reality of the body to be composed of the components having position and actualized, and another group regarded it connected and simple, free from such components; and of course, both groups had some offshoots and divergences.
Here, Democritus' view in the first group and Peripatetic view in the second group seem to be important views. Democritus regarded body as composed of minor solid and actualized components, and the Peripatetics regard it as composed of connected and simple, free from such components, considering for it two elements: the hyle and the form. Of course, Peripatetics acknowledge that they do not find the hyle directly in the outside world and that accept it because of the necessity of the argument. Illuminationists also agree to some extent with the first view, and – unlike the Peripatetics – deny the hyle as a component of the substance of body.
However, the Peripatetic view is the most well-known among all, for it has been used as the foundation of action for philosophers. Today, the scholars of the empirical sciences such as physics and chemistry have no doubt that the body is composed of actual components. It is, then, as if today the Peripatetic view, used as the foundation of action by philosophers, is challenged.
Some contemporary philosophers see the Peripatetic view unacceptable, and consider the body composed of components. Among them, Allama Hassan-zada Amoli has initiated a new view that has resolved the drawbacks of the previous views, while gathering all views together.