عنوان مقاله [English]
Cohen offered the discussion on ‘paradigm’ for the first time, and defined this term about the history of science in physics as follows: “Paradigm is a beam and layer of truth that opens a scope of the universe and its rules for us and determines our presuppositions, beliefs and perceptions about it.” Compiling a paradigm in any science or regarding any subject aims at offering a framework for resolving scientific issues within a certain limit. Indeed, paradigm is responsible for all general orientations of all theories originated from it. The quantum theory emerged in twentieth century, and quantum physics now enjoys a certain importance in philosophy of science. Many scientists such as Heisenberg, Plank and Schrodinger contributed to the development and evolutions in the theory of quantum physics. The theory of quantum physics was the onset of a new season in physics issues. The theory of quantum physics is not merely a theory. Rather, it is a method of thinking that can be used in other scientific disciplines, and its principles and concepts can be used as a scientific approach in disciplines such as computer, information, biology, communications, psychology, and educational sciences. Unlike Newton’s paradigm that pays attention to particularism and focus on functional particles, quantum paradigm is holistic and focuses on relationships. Based on the quantum paradigm, the whole universe is composed of energy whose basic state (the static and non-aroused state of the source energy) is called quantum vacuum. In other words, the universe is the infinite field of energy wherein there is no empty room. This field is called “quantum vacuum”. This vacuum, however, is not empty and includes all things and phenomena.
Measuring, which is the heart of the quantum theory, is considered as one of the aspects of basic difference between the quantum mechanics and classic mechanics. In the quantum mechanics, a precise definition of measurement is required. In the quantum mechanics, observing the microscopic thing leads to a major alteration in the state of that particle. Thus, measuring in quantum mechanics is different from measuring in the classic mechanics wherein observation and measurement has little effect on the thing. The common presupposition about measurement is that the system to be measured has a quantity, and that quantity has an amount that is measured. Thus, measurement reveals a feature that the system has already had. Accordingly, even if no measurement has been done on the system, the system would have had that feature.
It seems that the heart of the quantum theory is God’s knowledge of predestination (ilm qadar). Qadar means size, measurement and specifying the limits of something, and terminologically, it means that God has specified a size and amount for anything, creating it on the basis of calculation and assessment. Qadr is also divided into two types as far as order is concerned: (1) scientific measure, which is the origin for the limits and sizes of the things; and (2) objective measure, which is the determination of existence and the size of the existence of things as they are attributed to the Necessary Being. In this study, qadr means the first one, i.e. the scientific measure. Consequently, it seems that quantum paradigm is able to resolve the issues of various sciences, because it is based on one pure truth (Exalted God’s knowledge).