عنوان مقاله [English]
The theory of the existence of ‘the caused link’ (rābiṭ ma‘lūl) is among Mulla Sadra’s innovations and one of his most important foundations. In this theory, he negates plurality in existence and refers it to the states of existence to reach the personal unity of existence and plurality of the states of existence. Of course, it is difficult to deeply understand this theory and, to prevent misunderstanding, we must note that the theory of existence of a link and its consequence – that is, the personal unity of the truth of existence – neither necessitates denial of creatures and possible beings, nor does it necessitate incarnation of the ‘Necessary by Essence’ in the possible beings. In this theory, Mulla Sadra seeks to prove the claim that the existence of the ‘caused’ is neither the truth of the existence of the cause, nor is it independent and separate from it; rather, it is a truth between these two states. But this does not necessitate that the existence of the ‘caused’ have both the mode of dependence and mode of independence. In principle, in the sphere of dependence of the ‘caused’ on the cause, there is no ‘being’ dependent from one respect and independent from another respect; just as ‘independent’ means ‘absolutely independent’ not partial or relative. This is because in philosophy, existence is either purely dependent or purely independent. Consequently, for Mulla Sadra, the existence of the ‘caused’ (possible) is related to the existence of the ‘cause’ (necessary) in a pure form; and it has no independence. It is just the necessary being that is absolutely independent.